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2022 華南展招展書
工業安全

軌道交通傳輸方式與安防應用

  2012年09月12日  

引言

  列車運行安全事關重大,而列車運行中的事故時有發生,造成了重大損失,如英國倫敦地鐵爆炸案等。列車車廂內部的實時監控一直是軌道交通安全系統中關鍵而薄弱的一環。車載圖像監控系統可實現列車司機、控制中心值班員、車輛段DCC和車站值班員對列車車廂情況的實時監控。

 

  軌道交通具有運量大、速度快、安全、準點、保護環境、節約能源和用地等特點。當前,各國已普遍認識到,解決交通問題的根本出路在于優先發展以軌道交通為骨干的公共交通系統。

  軌道交通安防應用剖解

  城市軌道交通中的弱電系統主要包括信號系統、傳輸系統、公務及專用電話系統、無線通信系統、閉路電視系統、廣播系統、乘客信息系統、時間系統、火災報警系統、氣體滅火系統、設備監控系統、自動售檢票系統、電力監控系統和屏蔽門控制系統等等。綜合安防系統采用集成和互聯的手段,對上述系統進行整合,實現信息互通、資源共享,達到簡化系統設備配置、壓縮設備用房面積、減少綜合投入、提高運營效率、提高應變能力、提高城市軌道交通現代化運營管理水平的目的,并且為優化運營調度和值班模式提供靈活的平臺。

  綜合安防系統以車站控制為基本單位,采用控制中心、車站兩級管理,以及控制中心、車站、現場三級控制的模式,分層分布式結構。

  綜合安防系統集成或互聯的內容可以分為以下層次。

  ·系統平臺集成:在系統平臺級集成的子系統不再設置獨立的網絡系統和數據服務系統,所需的系統資源由綜合安防系統統一分配。SCADA(電力監控)、EMCS(機電設備監控)、PSD(屏蔽門/安全門)、FG(防淹門)、ACS(門禁控制系統)具有在系統平臺級集成的條件;

  ·監控功能集成:監控功能集成的系統可以擁有獨立的網絡和系統資源,其與運營有關的設備的監控功能被集成到綜合安防系統;綜合安防系統可以在同一操作界面上調用這些系統的部分功能,操作這些系統的部分設備。AFC(自動售檢票系統)、FAS(防災報警系統)、CCTV(電視監控系統)、PA(廣播系統)和時間系統等具有在監控功能級集成的條件;

  ·數據信息互聯:進行數據信息互聯的系統相互獨立設置,其間沒有功能調用關系,但設置通信接口交換各自的運行信息和報警信息,以實現相互間的控制協調;ATS(列車自動監控)、公務電話、調度電話、無線通信、綜合故障監管等采用數據信息互聯的方式。

  軌道交通傳輸方式分析

  軌道交通無線傳輸技術,即無線通信技術,分為民用無線通信、專用無線通信和列車控制無線通信。民用無線通信系統主要實現尋呼、GSM、CDMA、3G(含3G-UMTS、3G-UWB、3G-LTE)等公用移動信號的覆蓋,用于軌道交通的民用通信;專用無線通信系統主要實現TETRA、GOTA、GT-800、iDen、WLAN、DVB-T、WIMAX等專用信號的覆蓋,用于軌道交通的運營、生產,提供行車調度指揮與其他相關部門之間的聯系,包括列車調度、環境控制調度、公安調度、車輛段站場、維修部門等無線通信,用于軌道交通專用通信、公安通信、PIS/CCTV無線傳輸、移動電視;列車控制無線通信是軌道交通信號系統中最重要的組成部分之一,用于控制列車間的行駛間隔。

  目前,國內軌道交通行業使用的無線通信技術主要有:WLAN、GSM-R、TETRA、GSM、CDMA、3G、WiMAX、DVB-T等。

  城市軌道交通行業車地無線傳輸需求

  城市軌道交通的列車與地面之間通信越來越多地采用無線通信技術,除了民用通信外,目前有三個業務子系統需求車地無線通信:乘客資訊系統(PIS)中的下行流帶寬需求約為8Mbps(1路標清)、車載視頻監控系統的帶寬共約為6~8Mbps(1路上行,1路下行)、CBTC信號系統帶寬需求為數百Kbps。

  乘客咨詢系統(PIS)

  系統通過分布于列車車廂的液晶顯示器(一節車廂最多設置8臺),乘客可以實時了解列車運行狀態和到站信息,還可以觀看實時電視節目及廣告。

  車載視頻監控系統

  列車運行安全事關重大,而列車運行中的事故時有發生,造成了重大損失,如英國倫敦地鐵爆炸案等。列車車廂內部的實時監控一直是軌道交通安全系統中關鍵而薄弱的一環。車載圖像監控系統可實現列車司機、控制中心值班員、車輛段DCC和車站值班員對列車車廂情況的實時監控。運營列車每節車廂裝設2個小型半球型攝像機,用于監視車廂內乘客情況;兩端駕駛室各設置廣角半球攝像機,正常情況下監視列車司機位,緊急情況下,監視車內旅客疏散情況。兩端駕駛室設置一臺觸摸顯示器,根據需要顯示車內圖像或前方車站發送的站臺圖像。

  基于通信的列車控制系統(CBTC)

  基于通信技術的列車控制系統,其核心技術是車地連續、雙向的無線通信。隨著控制技術、計算機技術和數字無線通信技術的飛速發展,通信系統正在與列車運行控制系統相結合,基于通信的列車控制系統正在越來越多的被采用。

  鐵路行業車地無線傳輸需求

  GSM-R作為專門為滿足鐵路應用而開發的數字式無線通信系統,具有更適應鐵路運輸特點的、更成熟的技術優勢,以及更符合通信信號一體化技術發展的需要,特別是運用于列車控制系統、鐵路維護通信、列車診斷、旅客服務和貨運跟蹤服務。

  列車控制系統(TrainControlSystem,TCS)

  系統是以GSM-R作為傳輸手段的列車自動防護/列車自動控制系統,甚至可以實現列車的自動操作(駕駛)。

  鐵路維護通信

  利用GSM-R技術,可建立鐵路沿線維護人員的業務聯絡通信(新的路邊電話和隧道電話),并能夠根據維護人員的職能和所在的場所很快地確定他們的位置。

  列車診斷

  如果列車發生故障,診斷數據將通過GSM-R傳輸到下一個維修中心,使維修站能夠及時地為維修做好相關的準備,因而大大地縮短維修時間。

  旅客服務

  旅客服務主要包括列車時刻信息、在線售票(訂座)服務?;诹熊囎詣涌刂坪虶SM-R的列車時刻信息服務,能夠隨時為旅客和乘客提供列車的動態位置和時刻信息;基于GSM-R連接的售票機可提供在線售票(訂座)服務。

  貨運跟蹤服務

  該項服務利用一個帶有GPS接收器的簡單GSM模塊,可指示該貨車(集裝箱)的精確位置,可實時掌握所運貨物的確切位置,并可將這一數據發送給其客戶。

  中國城市軌道交通應用綜合安防系統才剛剛起步,這種對弱電系統進行有機集成的解決方案,是城市軌道交通建設的發展趨勢。

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