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  • English
2022 華南展招展書
PLC

軌道交通行業自動化的要求和施耐德自動化的方案策略

  2017年08月15日  

  地鐵中自控系統涉及范圍非常廣范,僅涉及自動控制的領域就多達十幾個,在這些領域中,自控系統所處的位置各不相同,有的作為固定產品出現在系統中;有的控制工藝非常成熟穩定,不必根據具體項目進行調整和重新開發;有的有明確的國家標準和法規約束,無法進行靈活改變;也有的系統比較新,沒有非常完整詳細的規定和工藝,系統的具體結構也比較靈活,這時就需要系統集成單位進行比較多的工程配合,設計,開發,調試工作,比如說設備監控系統就是這樣一個系統。

  地鐵中設備監控系統的I/O點數一般為10000~30000,其中開關量信號約占90%,模擬量信號為10%。系統接口數量非常多而且復雜,一個一般意義的設備監控系統涉及的對外接口的數量就多達二十個以上,而且工程配合時需要與不同的設備廠家進行技術配合工作。作為領先的自動化產品的供應商。施耐德電氣公司的自動化產品具有接口方案靈活多樣,兼容性強,網絡方案結構靈活等特點能夠滿足用戶不同的要求。具體方案介紹如下:

 

  系統是典型的分層分散計算機工業控制系統。

  通訊主干數據總線使用實際工業標準的100M以太網,安全、可靠、開放性好。所使用的操作系統為 WINDOWS 2000系統,是目前世界最通用的系統環境之一,界面友好,有廣泛的用戶基礎。軟件與硬件的兼容性好,使用,培訓方便,系統的易用性最佳。

  系統充分采用當今最先進的計算機技術和市場通用產品,使技術和產品可以隨著今后計算機技術的發展而發展,能夠最好的對新產品兼容,徹底解決了用戶的擔憂。

  車站控制網分為2層,上層為100兆光纖工業以太網modbus TCP/IP雙環網,下層MB+控制總線。主控制器之間采用100兆光纖冗余網連接。遠程子控制器與主控制器之間采用MB+連接。

  與車站EMCS主干網連接的外部系統是車站主控系統的FEP、車站IBP盤和FAS系統,內部系統是車站 A端的ECS系統、車站B端的ECS系統、維修工作站、BS系統和PIDS系統。

  EMCS的控制層是MCS,二者的連接是通過FEP前置處理器連接的,PLC組成的以太網可以直接與主控系統通信,而不需要經過規約的二次轉換。該方案已經成功應用于廣州地鐵三號線。

 

  由于地鐵車站內設備分散,控制設備范圍廣,通訊信息量大,因而要求控制系統網絡開放、支持遠距離通訊,網絡可靠性高,同時必須要求網絡通訊帶寬高。

  上海地鐵六號線設備監控系統 采用了施耐德電氣公司高性能的Quantum系列和Premium系列產品共同構建了光纖環網的車站級控制系統,整個網絡為 100兆光纖工業以太網modbus TCP/IP環網。通過管理型交換機構成自愈式光纖環網,能夠實現快速網絡自愈功能。整體方案采用的是目前世界最先進的透明就緒的解決方案。

 

  透明就緒

  透明就緒的定義:使用開放的、基于ModbusTCP、因特網技術與Web技術的體系結構,完成現場設備、控制設備與管理系統的無縫集成,使用戶可以從任何地方訪問所需的實時數據。

  方案策略

  1998年施耐德公司推出了新一代基于TCP/IP以太網的Modbus TCP,目的是滿足用戶和市場的進一步要求。 ModbusTCP是第一家采用TCP/IP以太網用于工業自動化領域的標準協議,也是至今唯一獲得IANA賦予TCP(TCP502 號)端口的自動化通訊協議。

  Modbus TCP的應用層是采用Modbus協議,簡單高效;傳輸層使用TCP協議,并使用TCP502號端口,用戶使用方便,連接可靠;網絡層采用IP協議,因為因特網就使用這個協議尋址,故ModbusTCP不但可以在局域網使用,還可以在城域網和國際互聯網上使用。

  目前的ModbusTCP以太網的速度為10M/100M位/秒,大大提高了數據傳輸能力。除此之外,施耐德的TCP/IP以太網還為用戶提供了更多的服務:I/O 掃描、全局數據、故障設備替換、網絡管理、電子郵件報警、時鐘同步等功能,為用戶帶來更多的附加值。

  快速生成樹協議

  上海地鐵八號線網絡系統使用的是快速生成樹協議,通過增加多重VLAN功能并消除生成樹算法部分遺留問題進而提高了網絡性能??焖偕蓸鋮f議是從生成樹協議發展而來,具備生成樹的所有功能;同時當網絡拓撲結構發生變化時,可以盡可能快的恢復網絡的連通性,特點如下:

  ● 通過阻斷冗余鏈路來消除橋接網絡中可能存在的路徑回環

  ● 當前活動路徑發生故障時激活冗余備份鏈路恢復網絡連通性

  ● 發現拓撲改變到恢復連通性的時間可達數毫秒,并且無需傳遞配置消息

  ● 網絡連通性可以在交換兩個配置消息的時間內恢復

  ● 邊緣端口的狀態變化不影響網絡連通性,也不會造成回路,所以進入轉發狀態無需延時

  通過這種先進的協議能夠保證通信鏈路持續暢通。這種自愈型環網極大的提高了通信的可靠性。

  總之,通過施耐德透明就緒的體系結構,既保證了整體方案的安全可靠,同時又實現了“單一網絡,多種服務”的功能,用戶完全可以按照自己的需要,選擇和實現相應的功能,真正做到自主地開發自己的系統,最終降低整個系統的建立、安裝、調試和維護的成本。

  該方案在上海地鐵的項目中得到了應用。

 

  根據用戶的要求,施耐德電氣的工程師與系統集成商和利時公司的專家共同設計了這樣一套完整而有效的設備監控系統整體解決方案?,F場級控制網采用工業控制網,保證系統的可靠性,同時降低通訊成本。

  北京地鐵十號線 具有如下特點:

  ● BAS 車站級不單獨組建BAS 局域網

  ● BAS系統主要由PLC、RI/O、通信接口轉換裝置等設備組成。傳感器等現場設備通過RI/O或通信接口轉換設備接入BAS系統

  ● 現場級控制網采用冗余網絡,在車站的A、B 兩端環控電控室各設置一套熱備冗余PLC裝置

  ● 車站冷凍站電控室、區間軸流風機配電室、車站綜合控制室IBP 盤處設置PLC單元

  ● RI/O 為非冗余配置,主要設置在環控電控室、照明配電室、暖通空調機房、冷凍站電控室、水泵房等房間內

  ● 在車站的A、B 兩端環控電控室、冷凍站電控室、區間軸流風機配電室處設置現場操作平臺

  ● BAS 區間設備以光纖連接方式接入現場級控制網絡。A、B 兩端PLC 之間以光纖連接方式連接

  ● 單一網絡能提供多個站點的連接能力,并能根據應用需要,支持靈活的網絡結構,可實現網絡之間的通訊橋接、隔離和數據交換

  ● 總線傳輸速率為1Mbps

  ● 除第三方系統通信接口外,現場級控制網內部采用統一的Modbus Plus通信協議

  ● 現場級控制網符合國際標準IEC61158

  ● 實時數據的傳遞,不需通過編程即可實現,其數據傳遞時間可根據需要預先指定

  ● 系統采用的是由純粹的現場總線構成的,現場總線是90年代初期興起的一種先進工業控制技術。具有如下特點:

  ○ 是一種全數字化、全分散式、全開放、可互操作和開放式互聯網絡的新一代控制系統

  ○ 是計算機技術,通信技術和控制技術的綜合與集成;它將通信線一直延伸到現場設備 ○ 將傳統的三層網絡結構變成兩層網絡結構“工作站-現場總線-現場設備”,降低了成本,提高了可靠性,實現了控制管理一體化的結構體系

  ○ 依靠具有檢測、控制、通信能力的微處理芯片,數字化設備在現場實現徹底分散控制,并以這些現場分散的測控設備單個點作為網絡節點,將這些點以總線形式連接起來,形成一個現場總線控制系統

  ○ 屬于最底層的網絡系統,是網絡集成式全分布控制系統

  ○ 一般采用令牌傳遞總線訪問方式(TOKEN BUS)既可達到通信快速的目的,又可以有較高的性價比

  ○ 硬件經過嚴格挑選,采用專用芯片(ASIC)和表面安裝技術(SMT)

  ○ 有多級安全措施,采用容錯技術與冗余技術

  該方案為北京地鐵的用戶所采用。

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