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2022 華南展招展書
工業機器人

優傲機器人 | 協作機器人:注塑廠商的新選擇

  2022年02月24日  

  三十年前,注塑應用很少會部署全伺服控制機器人。最常見的方法是部署簡單的三軸、點對點直角坐標型機器人安裝在機器上。這種簡易的機器人具有足夠的Z軸(垂直)行程,可以到達模板的中心線,從模具中快速取件,并將這些零件運送到料箱或傳送帶上。

  20年前,全伺服控制的直角坐標型機器人開始普及,它們能夠提供更高的精度和對臂端工具的控制。15年前,模塑商開始越來越多地采用六軸機器人。

  這一演變是由多種技術和商業因素所推動的,而這些因素一直延續到今日:

  注塑后道工藝??蛻粢竽K苌烫峁└暾牧慵徒M件,模塑商也十分樂意提高自身價值。去澆口、修邊、拋光、裝飾、裝配、包裝和打包是目前廠商需要完成的常見任務,也是最適合自動化的任務。

  提高表面光潔度??蛻魧Ρ砻婀鉂嵍仍O定了非常高的標準,這就要求零件從注塑到最后包裝或運輸容器都要經過仔細處理。

  更短的產品生命周期。產品更新和新產品推出的速度導致制造商需要不斷改變制造工藝。

  高混合/小批量。能夠減少庫存的產品定制、小批量和按需生產,推動了短期生產的發展,并對設置提出了更加嚴格的要求。

  協作機器人的引入

優傲協作機器人為廈門建霖公司、美國Dynamic Group和日本Alpha Corporation的注塑機提供服務。

  在過去的10年里,塑料加工廠開始采用一種新的自動化,叫做協作機器人(cobot),近期的普及率也日益提高。協作機器人通常采用關節臂技術,在標準的六軸機器人基礎上增加了一層安全性、用戶可編程性和移動性。如要了解協作機器人的魅力,首先要回顧一下為何關節臂機器人如此受到歡迎。

  六軸機器人的定位靈活性和整體工作范圍是其在注塑領域取得成功的關鍵。額外的自由度為物料搬運、裝配和其他應用的各階段提供了更多選擇,從而轉化為了切實的工藝優勢:

六軸機器人的工藝優勢

  靈活執行注塑前道和后道工藝

  將鑲嵌件放入模具并在注塑后道工藝中移動零件是復雜的運動,對角度和位置的要求非??量?。

  降低工具成本

  四軸直角坐標型機器人通常需要復雜的工具來彌補其運動學上的局限性。六軸關節臂機器人的運動范圍和靈活性降低了工具和夾具的成本,簡化了復雜性。

  可靈活裝載精密嵌件

  得益于自身的定位靈活性和可重復性,六軸機器人可拾取和嵌入精密嵌件。

  復雜零件的取出流程得到簡化

  在缺少頂桿助力的情況下,復雜零件很難脫模,但靈巧的六軸機器人可輕松從模具中取出零件。

  靈活避開障礙物

  拉桿、滑塊、軟管和夾具經常干涉零件的運動。六軸機器人具備較高的靈活性,可在模具周圍找到正確的行進路徑。

  維護壽命

  六軸機器人經過密封處理,減少維護需求,延長正常運行時間。在注塑應用中,大多數直角坐標型機器人的傳動系統暴露在外,因此需要定期維護。

  靈活的安裝方式

  許多六軸機器人可以安裝在不同的方向上,以優化布局、工作半徑和周期時間。典型的安裝方式是在注塑機后側安全門打開的情況下落地式安裝或基座安裝,也可采用其他方式,如壁掛安裝或倒置安裝。大多數六軸機器人的安裝方向是固定的,必須在工廠制造機器人時進行設置。其他型號也可在現場快速設置安裝方向。

  頂部余隙較小

  直角坐標型機器人存在一大弊端:垂直(Z)軸延伸到機器人中心線以上。如果未配備復雜且昂貴的可伸縮式Z軸,天花板的高度必須至少與Z軸的延伸高度相同。受限于管道、線盤、水、蒸汽和消防管道的布局,許多工廠難以甚至不可能滿足上述要求。然而,即使在天花板很低的設施中,六軸機器人也能夠安裝在注塑機上。

  有效利用地面空間

  在任何工廠中,地面空間始終非常寶貴。隨著模塑商在產品生產過程中增加越來越多的注塑前道和后道加工工藝,他們對機器周圍的地面空間需求日益升高。機載式六軸機器人具備六軸靈活性的優勢,同時省出地面空間,供其他利用。

  便于進入機器空間

  模具需要更換,而且維修部門也需要進入到機器空間。如果六軸機器人安裝在機器上或天花板上,這意味著在需要時可以輕松進入到機器空間內。

  日本的Alpha Corporation首先考慮使用工業機器人來管理注塑機,但由于公司缺乏足夠的空間來設置安全圍欄,從而放棄了這個想法。

  優傲機器人公司的UR5與Dynamic Group的直角坐標型機器人協同工作。

  日本的Alpha Corporation安裝優傲機器人公司的協作機器人后,生產力得到了極大的提高,汽車鑰匙模塑工藝的產量增加了20%。

  在捷克共和國的2K Trend,一臺UR10協作機器人拿起需要放在注塑模具中的鑲嵌件。

  協作機器人可以輕松從一臺沖壓機移到另一臺沖壓機,正如我們在Dynamic Group所看到的那樣。

協作機器人的優勢

  協作機器人應用在注塑領域呈爆炸式增長。除了具備上述六軸機器人的各種優點外,協作機器人還具備傳統自動化所不具備的顯著優勢:

  釋放更多的地面空間

  協作機器人因其能夠在靠近人類的地方安全工作而得名。如果應用得當(經過風險評估),協作機器人通常無需像傳統自動化一樣設置沉重、昂貴和空間密集的安全圍欄或檢修門。協作機器人的協作特性釋放了更多的地面空間,即使安裝在地板或基座上,相關人員也能夠快速進入協作機器人的工作區域,而無需打開安全門或禁用警報器。

  (不過,請注意,雖然機器人本身的設計可能包含傳感器、速度和扭矩限制,以確保它們能夠在人類周圍安全工作,但如果缺乏某些機械或電子光學防護,它們的臂端工具或正在處理的部件可能帶來危險。)

  操作人員參與

  協作機器人的設計旨在接近操作人員、其他協作機器人和機械的情況下安全運行。最大限度提高熟練操作員和協作機器人之間的互動,比單獨使用機器人或人類操作員更有成效。

  可移動性

  協作機器人具備輕量化、易于設置和編程的特點,通常被視為一種制造工具,根據生產組合和時間表的要求在機器與機器之間移動。協作機器人能被安裝在滾動基座或推車上,并被推到特定位置上短期處理零件。其他裝置利用磁性基座,或高精度夾頭安裝,確保協作機器人能夠在機器之間移動。

  易于編程

  有些型號的協作機器人可提供極其直觀的編程,并簡化設置、編程和與注塑機及其他外圍設備的對接。操作人員無需學習專門的軟件語言,即使采用引導式教學,運營成本也非常低,因此,中小型企業也能成功實現機器人自動化。

  低成本/快速投資回報

  協作機器人正在改變自動化的實施方式。簡化的編程和設置,預先設計的外圍設備(如夾具甚至視覺系統),以及縮減或零防護,所有這些加起來的自動化成本約為傳統機器人的一半。

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