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2022 華南展招展書
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item |手工生產好幫手,MTM 方法讓一切盡在“掌控”之中

  2022年03月16日  

  日益增長的競爭壓力和生產成本,嚴格的作業時間和人口結構變化,面對這些難題,手工生產該如何優化?

  從規劃階段著手提前分析并評估生產過程和工作臺設計MTM 方法助您迎來“順風開局”。那么,問題又來了?什么是 MTM 方法?現在就帶你研究!

  Steffen Rast 博士自 1999 年以來,一直在 MTM 協會的子公司德國 MTM 工業與經濟咨詢有限公司工作,并于 2016 年開始負責人體工學部門,擁有豐富的經驗。下面,他將帶我們深度解讀 MTM 方法,并介紹如何以前瞻性思維客觀地描述、評估和規劃生產過程和人體工學。

關鍵詞

MTM、手工生產、時間測量

  Q:什么是 MTM 方法?如何理解 MTM 方法?

  A:MTM 代表“方法時間測量”,用來描述、分析、評估和規劃所有的手工任務,主要用于工業領域,也可用于行政部門或小型車間。MTM 方法將手部運動分解為一系列的基本動作,所以具有普遍適用性。

  所有的基本動作都是“動作單元”,對應“時間測量單位(TMUs)”中規定的標準化客觀值。其與普通時間單位的換算如下:

  1 秒鐘=27.8 TMUs

  1 分鐘=1667 TMUs

  使用 MTM 方法時,只要將每個動作單元對應的 TMU 值相加,就能確定每個手工任務所需的目標時間。我們還可以用筆、紙和 MTM-Easy 等軟件來簡化工作。此外,MTM 方法還可以與動作捕捉和虛擬現實一起使用。

  如果要對手工裝配線上的現有工作臺進行優化,可以先根據目標時間對工作臺進行評估。通過對比,確定改進范圍。最好是提前使用 MTM 方法,也就是在規劃裝配工作臺時就使用,這樣可以大幅降低成本。

關鍵詞

動素、標準時間

  Q:MTM 方法的來源以及開發者是誰?

  A:MTM 方法的發展離不開美國建筑承包商 Frank Bunker Gilbreth 的推動。20 世紀初,Gilbreth 發現人類的所有運動都能分解為 17 種基本動作,這些動作稱之為“動素(therbligs)”,即 Gilbreth 英文名的倒寫,同時他還開發了特殊的符號來表示這些基本動作。

  根據 Gilbreth 的想法,許多研究人員開始研究動作序列的規則。最終在 1948 年,Harold Bright Maynard、John Lenhard Schwab和Gustave James Stegemerten 合作出版了《方法時間測量》(Methods-Time Measurement)一書,MTM 方法由此誕生。這就是 MTM 系統的雛形,我們現在稱之為 MTM-1 基礎系統。

  Maynard、Schwab 和 Stegemerten 通過觀察發現,80% 的手工任務可以分解為:伸手、抓取、移動、定置和釋放。他們對不同工作區域的員工進行了上千次的跟蹤拍攝,包括不同性別、不同手臂長度的員工等,從而確定了所有的基本動作和對應的標準時間。

  他們的研究為 MTM 方法奠定了基礎。通過這些方法,我們可以確定夠到桌面上獨立放置的零部件需要的標準時間是多少?如果零部件與其他零部件放在一起,需要的標準時間又是多少?這些都可以通過 MTM 方法進行確定。

  1951 年,美國 MTM 標準與研究協會在紐約成立,隨后 MTM 進入歐洲并于 1962 年傳到了德國。于是,德國眾多工業領域的知名企業聯合成立了德國 MTM 協會。根據協會章程的規定,我們的目標是傳播 MTM 方法,并確保 MTM 方法在全球范圍內的統一應用。在過去的幾十年中,我們在這方面取得了很大的成功。MTM 協會的子公司德國MTM 工業與經濟咨詢有限公司為工業領域提供了一系列與 MTM 相關的服務。

  MTM 方法可用于確定以下內容:拿到一個單獨放在桌子上的或者旁邊其他人桌子上的零件所需的標準時間是多少?

關鍵詞

EWAS、前瞻性人體工學、物理工作量

  Q:MTM 方法在人體工學評估中起到什么作用?

  A:將人類工作看作一個整體變得越來越重要。因此,使用 MTM 方法來確定工作時間并進行人體工學評估也變得至關重要。這兩者相互聯系、相互補充,缺一不可。我們的目標是設計出能讓各個年齡階段使用的工作臺,即使員工年齡增大,也能滿足他們的使用需求。因為,工作臺不僅要考慮提高生產力,也要兼顧員工的健康和安全。

  除此之外,前瞻性人體工學,即在規劃階段考慮人體工學原則,與糾正措施相比更有優勢,也更具成本效益,因為企業可以在規劃整個工廠時采取前瞻性方法來防止員工高度緊張并避免潛在風險。在這方面,我們也可以提前評估、分類和設計。

  在評估人體工學時,我們可以使用人體工學評估工作表(EAWS)方法,以評估整個身體和手臂系統所要承受的物理工作量。這是全球統一的人體工學工作臺設計標準。EAWS 方法經人為因素和人體工學社區驗證,并且采用全球統一的標準,這對工會和工作委員會至關重要。

  EAWS 的作用是評估每位員工在工作臺上的物理工作量。每位員工是不同的,我們可以借助這些比較值獲得可靠的標準值。使用 EAWS 評估人體工學時,您需要為各個工作量分配分數,并將它們相加。這些值可通過交通燈系統進行分類,綠色工作臺在 0~25 分之間;黃色工作臺在 25~50 之間;而紅色工作臺則在 50 分以上,這樣就能清晰地看出人體工學優化需要多少成本。

  行為人體工學也是一個重要因素,它是指員工在工作臺上符合人體工程學的正確行為。

關鍵詞

工作量

  Q:時間因素在身體壓力的分析中是否起到很大的作用?

  A:當然。當我們用 EAWS 來確定工作量的強度時,我們還可以同時借助 MTM 方法計算工作量的持續時間,這樣就能得出評估人體工學的簡單公式:風險=強度分數×持續時間分數。持續時間分數是根據員工的動態或靜態動作確定的,我們可以通過頻率來計算。為此,我們需要使用 MTM 方法。

關鍵詞

成功應用、前瞻性人體工學規劃

  Q:您能介紹一個 MTM 方法和 EAWS 的實踐案例嗎?

  A:SIKO 是一家專為機械工程和工業應用提供傳感器和定位系統的全球制造商。他們的生產工廠搬到了一座新大樓。作為搬遷的一部分,公司對新流程進行了提前檢查和評估,并與搬遷前的情況進行了對比。整個過程考慮到了各個方面,包括裝配工作臺的設計和員工的實際任務。此外,我們還考慮了環境影響、工具使用、物料供應和物流?,F在,整個生產過程都使用了 item 的人體工學裝配工作臺。

  我們使用 MTM 方法和 EAWS 來分析和評估公司的作業時間和人體工學。由此形成了一定的改進建議,并在規劃新工廠的裝配工作臺時進行考量。這是前瞻性人體工學規劃的典型案例,您可以提前分析和評估工作臺:如何防止身體壓力?在規劃工廠時,工作臺的最佳設置是什么?某些工作臺是否需要互連,比如從物流到實際生產再到檢查過程?

  對 SIKO 來說,工作臺的高度可調節至關重要,因為他們希望員工能在站姿和坐姿之間自由切換。除此之外,符合人體工學且可單獨調節的照明以及工作臺的排列方式也是不容忽視的。在這方面,具有標準動作單元的 MTM 過程和使用 EAWS 進行的人體工學評估提供了很大的幫助。

關鍵詞

靈活、合作伙伴

  Q:您與 item 有哪些合作呢?

  A:我們與 item 建立了長期而良好的合作關系。從工作臺設計到內部物流,item 為我們提供了很多出色的成套系統。借助 item 提供的型材,我們實現了一系列的應用,包括工作臺設計和物料供應。因此,我們之間的合作堪稱完美互補。

  在上面的案例中,item 邀請我們與 SIKO 合作并提供支持。為此,我們進行了密切的聯系和溝通。各行各業的工廠中都有 item 產品的身影,因為 item 的型材具有很高的靈活性,他們提供的解決方案也很有吸引力,我們向很多公司推薦 item 的解決方案。對于我們的工具箱,包括定制解決方案和現成的解決方案來說,item 是不可或缺的合作伙伴。

  在中國,item 也與 MTM 保持著友好的合作關系,去年也分別在江蘇和天津開設了兩場線下的分享課程,旨在將優秀的工具和辦法帶給有需要的企業。今年也會繼續開展這樣的活動,也歡迎您隨時關注我們的新動向。

(文章來源:item依諾信)

標簽:item  MTM方法  我要反饋
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