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2022 華南展招展書
控制系統

解決方案 | 基于PLCnext的PID參數自整定解決方案

  2022年04月08日  

  基于PLCnext的PID參數自整定解決方案

  今天給大家帶來的是基于PLCnext的PID控制,所謂PID控制,即比例積分微分控制,別一看有微積分就嚇的不行,認為比較難,其實不是的。下面我就用大白話給大家說一下吧,在實際工業過程控制中,幾乎所有模擬量的控制都涉及到PID控制。PID算法是當之無愧的萬能算法,因為PID控制具有算法簡單、魯棒性好、可靠性高等特點。

  PID控制一般常用于溫度、速度等模擬量的控制,PID的控制過程是怎樣的呢?且看我給大家娓娓道來,被控的實際模擬量與期望的設定值之間形成偏差,經過PID運算后得到控制量,驅動閥門開度、電機轉速(水泵)、熱量等,得到我們期望的響應過程,最終消除偏差。PID控制框圖如下:

  PID運算各校正環節的作用如下:

  1)比例環節:調整系統對當前誤差的能力,即時成比例地反應控制系統的偏差信號e(t),偏差一旦產生,控制器立即產生控制作用以減小誤差。當偏差e(t)=0時,控制作用也為0。

  2)積分環節:積分是調節誤差的。對偏差進行記憶,用于消除靜差,提高系統的無差度,積分作用的強弱取決于積分時間常數Ti,Ti越大,積分作用越弱,反之則越強。

  3) 微分環節:微分就是調節變化的快慢。反映偏差信號的變化趨勢(變化速率),并能在偏差信號值變得太大之前,在系統中引入一個有效的早期修正信號,從而加快系統的動作速度,減小調節時間。

  最重要的問題來了,PID參數的設置和調整直接影響了PID控制回路的品質,其設置和調整過程比較耗時并且很難得到較好的效果,它一般由工作經驗豐富的工程師來完成;再加上每個系統的控制環境又各不相同,很多系統呈現滯后性和非線性,PID參數具有自整定功能的需求越來越迫切。怎么才能完美的調節好PID參數呢?別急!!

  接下來,我們先談一下PID參數自整定的過程:在系統進入穩態的情況下在輸出控制側施加一個階躍變化,這個階躍變化一般為輸出控制量的20%,然后觀察系統的響應過程,通過分析系統的響應過程計算出相應的PID參數,如下圖:

  重點來了,基于菲尼克斯PLCnext的PID參數自整定解決方案正好契合PID參數自整定需求。接下來我們就拿個實例來給大家展示一下,首先,菲尼克斯PLCnext控制器支持Matlab Simulink溫度控制模型的導入,如下圖所示:

  其次,使用上面的模型后,我們對菲尼克斯PLCnext控制器PID參數自整定功能進行仿真,自整定過程如下:

  最后,PID參數自整定后控制效果圖如下:

  我們從PID控制效果圖可以看到,整定后的PID回路在滿足快速動態響應的同時,不僅沒有超調量,而且也沒出現振蕩,系統快速達到穩定狀態,并且持續保持穩定。

(來源:菲尼克斯自動化)

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